Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: Lapidary arts

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Název: Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: Lapidary arts
Autoři: Easby, Elizabeth K., author, McLeod, Madeline, contributor
Zdroj: Oxford Art Online, 2022, ill.
Informace o vydavateli: Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2022.
Rok vydání: 2022
Témata: Sculpture and Carving, Pre-Columbian Art
Předmětná osoba: Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica: Lapidary arts
Více informací: See also Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica. In the Mesoamerican context lapidary art means essentially the carving of jade and other greenstones (see fig.). Only two minerals are considered true jade, nephrite and jadeite (see Jade, §1), both of which are valued for hardness, toughness, translucence, and beauty when polished. Jadeite, which may have more intense color, is rarer, being found in only six localities worldwide; the Mesoamerican source was rediscovered in 1952 in the Motagua Valley in Guatemala (see South America, Pre-columbian, §II, 5). Jadeite varies greatly and usually occurs mixed with diopside or albite. Commoner minerals valued for their greenness include chalcedony, prase, jasper, and bloodstone (all varieties of quartz); serpentines named bowenite and williamsite (translucent); metadiorite (green-speckled); the amphiboles nephrite, actinolite, and amphibolite; and muscovites, especially fuchsite. Chloromelanite (nearly black) is sometimes classed as jade; it was used mainly in tools. From the earliest times Mesoamerican lapidaries used stones of other colors, including rock crystal, amethyst, various opaque black, brown, reddish, and purplish stones, turquoise, and amazonite. All were obtainable through the widespread trading network that distributed obsidian and greenstones over long distances, but they were seldom used until shortly before the Spanish Conquest. The preponderance of greenstones, especially at sites where little or no jadeite was found, clearly suggests that it was valued far beyond its inherent superiority in tools, probably for its religious and ritual significance....
Typ dokumentu: Reference Entry
Jazyk: English
ISBN: 978-1-884446-05-4
DOI: 10.1093/oao/9781884446054.013.90000369714
Přístupové číslo: edsoao.90000369714
Databáze: Oxford Art Online